Diabetes – Types, Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Diabetes occurs when your blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. It arises when your body isn’t properly responding to the effects of insulin or when your pancreas doesn’t make enough or any insulin at all. All ages are affected by diabetes. The majority of diabetes types are chronic (last a lifetime), but all can be controlled with medication and/or lifestyle adjustments.

Sugar, or glucose, comes primarily from the carbohydrates in your food and beverages. It is your body’s primary energy source. All of your body’s cells receive glucose from your blood, which is used for energy. The majority of what you eat is converted into glucose by your body when you eat. After that, the glucose enters your bloodstream to provide energy for the body’s cells, including your brain. Your pancreas responds by secreting a hormone known as insulin, which facilitates the glucose’s entry into your cells.

 If left untreated, diabetes-related high blood sugar can harm your body parts, such as the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and other organs. Your body can see different diabetes symptoms; however, you can protect your health by learning about diabetes and its types and taking steps to prevent or manage it.

Table of Contents

Types of Diabetes

Diabetes can be in many different forms, and how a person’s body deal with it varies from person to person. Diabetes does not always occur by being overweight or not exercising enough. Some people may have had this health issue since their childhood.

You must have heard of various types of diabetes; these are the most common types-

Type 1 Diabetes

Although it can occur at any age, this type is typically diagnosed in children, adolescents, and young adults. When your pancreas does not make insulin, you have type 1 diabetes. Because of this, you must take insulin every day. Diabetes type 1 cannot be treated. As soon as a person is given a diagnosis, they will need to take insulin, keep an eye on their blood sugar levels, and make some changes to their lifestyle to help manage the condition. People with type 1 diabetes who manage their blood sugar levels well can avoid serious complications.

Type 2 Diabetes

Although it can occur at any age, people over 40 are more likely to notice these types of diabetes symptoms. When your body doesn’t use insulin properly, or your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin, you get type 2 diabetes. Type 2 is present in between 90%-95% of people. It is increasingly affecting children and adolescents, even though it has historically primarily affected adults.

Gestational Diabetes

Pregnant women with no diabetes symptoms earlier may develop Gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Generally, it goes away after the pregnancy but increases the chances of developing type 2 diabetes later.

Causes for Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes happens due to hormonal changes in the body during pregnancy. The hormones produced by the placenta make the cells of a pregnant woman’s body less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This may cause high blood sugar in the pregnant woman’s body. Women who are overweight or gain much weight during their pregnancy are more likely to be affected by gestational diabetes.


The stage that comes before Type 2 diabetes is this type. Although your blood glucose levels are higher than usual, they are not high enough to indicate Type 2 diabetes.

Causes of Diabetes

Regardless of the type, diabetes is caused by excess glucose in the blood. However, the reason for high blood glucose levels varies from diabetes-to-diabetes type. Here are a few causes mentioned.

 Insulin Sensitivity

Insulin resistance is primarily responsible for type 2 diabetes. When your liver, muscles, and fat cells do not respond to insulin as they should, you develop insulin resistance. Obesity, inactivity, diet, hormonal imbalances, genetics, and certain medications are all factors that contribute to insulin resistance in varying degrees.

 Harm to the Pancreas

A condition, surgery, or injury to your pancreas can affect its ability to make insulin, resulting in Type 2 diabetes.

An autoimmune reaction causes type 1 diabetes to develop. The immune system’s T cells attack and destroy insulin-producing pancreatic cells as a result. This indicates that the pancreas cannot produce insulin.

Other factors that can increase the chances of type1 diabetes are:

  • If your parents or sibling is suffering from diabetes, your chances of getting type2 diabetes are high
  • If you are being exposed to any viral sickness
  • If you have any injury to your pancreas
  • If you have any diabetes autoantibodies

 Unbalanced Hormones

Genetics and lifestyle are both factors that contribute to type 2 diabetes. Your risk is also increased if you are overweight or obese. Your cells are more resistant to the effects of insulin on your blood sugar when you carry more weight, especially in your belly. This condition is genetic. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are linked genetically between members of a family.

Symptoms or Signs of Diabetes

How does one know if they have diabetes? The majority of the early sign of diabetes is caused by blood glucose levels that are higher than normal.

Sometimes the warning signs don’t bother you at all. This is especially true for type 2 diabetes. Some people don’t know they have it until they start having problems. The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes typically appear quickly, within a few days or weeks. They are also much more severe. Some of the diabetes symptoms are followed-

Hunger and Tiredness

The food you eat is turned into glucose, which your cells use to get energy. However, your cells can’t take in glucose without insulin. You won’t have any energy if the glucose can’t get into your cells or if your cells don’t respond to the insulin your body makes. You might get hungry and tired more than usual as a result.

Peeing more often

The average person typically needs to pee between 6-8 times in a 24-hour period, but diabetics may need to pee much more frequently. Why? Normally, your kidneys are the organs through which your body reabsorbs glucose. However, if diabetes raises your blood sugar, your kidneys may be unable to bring it back to normal levels. The body produces more urine as a result, which requires fluids. That’s why you tend to go to pee more frequently.

Blurred Vision

Changing fluid levels in your body could make the lenses in your eyes swell up. They change shape and can’t focus. Changing fluid levels in your body could make the lenses in your eyes swell up. They change shape and can’t focus.

Yeast Infection

These can affect diabetic men and women alike. Because yeast thrives on glucose, which is abundant, any warm, moist fold of skin can harbour infections, including:

  • Under breast
  • Between toes and fingers
  • In or around sex organs

Weight Loss

Your body will begin burning muscle and fat for energy if it is unable to obtain energy from food. You might lose weight even if you haven’t changed your eating habits. Check out which foods contain a lot of trans fatty acids.

Nausea and Vomiting

Ketones are produced when your body resorts to burning fat. These can accumulate in your blood to dangerous levels, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal condition. Ketones have the potential to make you feel unwell.

Treatments of Diabetes

Diabetes is a complex condition, so its management involves several strategies. In addition, diabetes affects everyone differently, so treatment plans vary from person to person.

 Blood Sugar Monitoring

If you want to know how well your current treatment plan is working, keeping an eye on your blood sugar (glucose) is essential. It provides you with daily, sometimes even hourly, guidance on diabetes management. You can check your levels frequently using a glucose meter, finger stick, or continuous glucose monitor (CGM). You and your healthcare provider will determine the ideal blood sugar range for you.

Oral Diabetes Medication

People with diabetes who still produce some insulin, primarily those with Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, can manage their blood sugar levels with oral diabetes medications taken orally. Additionally, oral medication may be required by pregnant women with diabetes. There are numerous varieties. The most common is metformin.


To live with and manage diabetes, Type 1 diabetics must inject synthetic insulin. Some diabetics also require insulin with Type 2 diabetes. Synthetic insulin comes in a variety of forms. They all begin to work at varying rates and remain in your body for varying amounts of time. Injectable (shot) insulin, insulin pens, insulin pumps, and rapid-acting inhaled insulin are the four main ways to take insulin.


Because food significantly impacts blood sugar, meal planning and choosing a healthy diet are important aspects of diabetes management. Keeping track of the carbs in your food and drinks is an important part of managing your diabetes if you take insulin. How much insulin you need at meals depends on how many carbohydrates you eat. In addition, adopting healthy eating habits can help you control your weight and lower your risk of heart disease.


Regular exercise is an important part of diabetes management for all people because it increases insulin sensitivity and helps reduce insulin resistance.

Diabetes can have an emotional as well as a physical impact on a person.

Whether you have had diabetes for a short period of time or have been diagnosed recently, you may require emotional support. This could be due to exhaustion, low mood, or stress.

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